Imprints of historical pollution and the 218-60 BCE tsunamigenic period in southwestern Spain
The Doñana National Park is a Biosphere Reserve located within the estuary of the Guadalquivir River (SW Spain). It is mainly composed of extensive fluvio-tidal marshes partially protected by an elongated sandy spit. Three phases have been distinguished in the late Holocene evolution of this spit based on textural, geochemical, palaeontological and, chronological data recorded in a long core (31 m). Phase 1 (890 BCE-218 BCE) is characterized by the alternation of lagoonal silty sediments and slightly polluted marsh deposits, the latter with contamination from thousand-year-old mining. Phase 2 (218 BCE-90 CE) is characterized by several historical tsunamis, which caused the erosion of previous dune systems and the deposit of these sandy sediments on the adjacent bottom of the lagoon. Phase 3 (90 CE-Present) includes a regressive sequence (lagoonal bottom-marsh-dune system), with the pollution of lagoonal sediments due to Roman mining activities.